Jean-François Lamonier, a lecturer/researcher at the University of Lille, is an expert in the catalytic treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). He leads the 'Remediation and Catalytic Materials' (REMCAT) research team in the Laboratory of Catalysis and Solid State Chemistry (UCCS), which specialises in the catalytic removal of atmospheric pollutants emitted by both fixed and mobile sources (such as factories and vehicles, respectively). In this blog post, he tells us about his research and explains how his team uses measuring instruments and flow controllers.
Focus areas for the REMCAT research team
REMCAT (Remediation and Catalytic Materials) research team of the Laboratory of Catalysis and Solid State Chemistry (UCCS)
The REMCAT team comprises six lecturer/researchers. Our work is focused on catalytic after-treatment of atmospheric pollutants, primarily nitrogen oxides (NOx and N2O) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Our team possesses broad knowledge in the field of heterogeneous catalysis: from catalyst synthesis to characterisation of new catalytic formulations, evaluation of their performance through comprehensive testing, advanced characterisation of catalysts using operando infrared spectroscopy, reaction kinetics and reactor modelling.
Air pollution treated efficiently by combining non-thermal plasma with catalysis
This set of skills in environmental catalysis allows us to develop original processes that involve combining different technologies to devise a cheaper, more effective and more environmentally-friendly method of treating air pollution. In this context, we collaborate with various national and international research groups, such as the 'Research Unit Plasma Technology' (RUPT) at the University of Ghent. This research unit specialises in developing plasma reactors; we lend them our expertise in heterogeneous catalysis to help develop processes to couple non-thermal plasma with catalysis. This research is being conducted in an International Associated Laboratory on 'Plasma-Catalysis', which we recently created under the auspices of the European INTERREG V 'DepollutAir' project, which is currently funding our research.
Using adsorption functionality in plasma-catalytic transformation processes
Traditional plasma-catalytic processes to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are present in industrial waste gases, require a continuous energy supply. Our approach is to insert an earlier step in the plasma-catalytic transformation process involving adsorption of the pollutant. This enables the plasma to work sequentially to remove the volatile organic compounds and means the adsorbent is regenerated, resulting in substantial energy savings. Our team is lending its expertise to the development of new adsorbent/catalyst materials and to the advanced characterisation of these materials.
Using flow meters and flow controllers in the catalytic treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
In our research, we need to generate mixtures of VOCs to simulate industrial waste gases. As these waste gases are different for each type of industry and we need to be as representative as possible of industrial realities, we have to be able to generate gas flows with highly variable VOC levels, containing VOCs of many different types, such as formaldehyde, toluene, chlorobenzene, trichloroethylene and butanol.
Dilution system with Coriolis flow meter
To this end, we use a dilution system supplied by Bronkhorst, which comprises a Coriolis flow meter, a pressure regulator (overflow valve) and a number of mass flow controllers. We needed a device that would enable us to achieve low concentrations of VOCs, because increasingly restrictive standards have resulted in a decrease in atmospheric VOC levels. We also needed the system to be as flexible as possible, so it could adapt both to the nature of the various liquids injected into the system to be transformed into gases and to the VOC levels in the waste gases, which can range from 10 to 1000 ppmv.
The relative humidity of the waste gases is an important parameter to take into consideration when developing catalytic formulations. As you might imagine, the presence of steam can have a positive or negative effect on the performance of the catalytic process. Consequently, the system for generating the gases must also be able to generate a variable relative humidity in the gas mixture.
Furthermore, to develop a catalytic formulation suitable for industrial applications, we not only need to verify that the catalyst is both active and selective (in other words, that the catalyst can produce the desired products), but also that it is stable over time. It’s hard to imagine a catalyst that only works for a single day and has to be replaced the next day.
That’s why we need to reproduce an industrial waste gas stream that remains constant for several days. If we’re performing a catalytic test over the course of a single day, we might consider using a bubbler system. However, when we need to check the stability of the catalysts over time, we conduct long-term tests to see if the catalyst is capable of maintaining its activity over several days. It would be more complicated to conduct tests over time using a traditional system, but the Bronkhorst system generates a constant, continuous, smooth flow of VOCs into the air. This is a distinct advantage that enables us to validate our process.
Click here for more information about the research of Jean-François Lamonier and the REMCAT team from the Laboratory of Catalysis and Solid State Chemistry.
Our guest blogger is Dr Jornt Spit. He’s a researcher at the Radius research group at Thomas More University of Applied Sciences in Belgium, and has a background in biochemistry and biotechnology. The Radius researchers are working on renewable biomass, involving the cultivation of algae and insects that are then processed into valuable raw materials for a bio-based economy. As part of their research activities, they use Bronkhorst mass flow controllers to enable precision flow of carbon dioxide.
CO2: a valuable alternative carbon source
In recent years, carbon dioxide (CO2) has been steadily attracting attention as a valuable source of carbon. Of course, the rising concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is a major and growing concern, and this is driving an increasing focus on sustainability in society. In line with this, we at Thomas More are working to achieve a more circular economy and a more bio-based economy. This means obtaining materials, chemicals and energy from renewable (energy) sources, and not from fossil fuels. Alternative biomass could become a major source in this approach.
Currently, the main activity of our research group is cultivating renewable biomass, partly in the form of algae. We’re doing this under controlled conditions in the horizontal tubes of a photo-bioreactor. We use pure gaseous CO2 as the source of carbon. We’re cultivating algae with a view towards various applications. Algae can be very useful in the cattle feed sector, for instance, or in the food sector, the health products or ‘neutraceuticals’ sector or the cosmetics sector. Our research group is not heavily involved in further developing these applications – we’re focusing on optimising the cultivation of the algae, or in other words the process technology aspect.
Algae for conversion into valuable raw materials
Micro-algae form a really large and diverse group. More than 50,000 different species of algae have been identified and there are probably many more, running into hundreds of thousands. They are single-celled organisms, but can sometimes also form colonies. Algae are photoautotrophic organisms, which means that they use CO2 as a source of carbon and then convert this into sugars by means of photosynthesis. The micro-algae that we cultivate contain a particularly large amount of interesting substances: proteins, sugars and fats being the main groups. In addition, the micro-algae also make high-value chemicals such as pigments and antioxidants. To give one example, we at Radius cultivate a special alga that produces the valuable red colourant phycoerythrin. You can pretty much regard algae as tiny factories that can produce all kinds of substances that we need – so in order to synthesize these substances, we don’t need to completely reinvent the wheel. The various algae cells have evolved under evolutionary pressure to make these interesting substances, simply using a little sunlight, CO2 and a few nutrients. That means there’s a huge potential for utilising these substances.
An algae culture increases in density through cell division. If conditions are right, then the algae will continue their cell division until a culture reaches its maximum density. At this point, the algae are harvested, so the algae biomass itself is the product. In our closed photobioreactors, we achieve a density of 1 to 2 grams of dry material per litre. When this point is reached, we take the algae out. This biomass can be directly used for food purposes or as cattle feed, but we can also further process the biomass, ‘break it open’ and extract the most interesting substances. If we take this latter approach, it’s called bio-refining or extraction. The whole process of cultivating, harvesting and further processing the algae presents a major challenge. That’s because each step is important and has to be carried out as efficiently as possible to ensure that the entire operation is profitable.
Mass flow controllers for precision flow of CO2
To optimise growth, it’s important to select an alga that grows well under the conditions we can provide in our unit. Not all algae species can absorb CO2 with the same efficiency, and not all algae grow equally fast. In our research, we find out which temperatures are best for growing the various species of algae, and how much light a particular alga needs. Here on the campus, we use natural sunlight: the photobioreactors are in a greenhouse. As a result, the algae grow during the day, when the sun shines, and not at night. One of the research questions we are investigating as part of the ‘EnOp’ Interreg project is: if we add extra CO2 to the reactor, how much faster will the algae grow, and which algae types absorb the CO2 most efficiently? In order to answer this question, we need mass flow controllers, because we want to know exactly how much CO2 we have added.
The CO2 is mixed with inflowing air that is channelled to the reactor, after which the CO2 dissolves in the liquid culture fluid, which also contains other nutrients. Since CO2 (carbon dioxide) is a weak acid, the pH level of the fluid steadily falls. This has a negative effect, because most algae grow best at a pH level between roughly 7 and 8. However, as the algae grow, they absorb CO2 from the fluid, making the pH rise again. The acidity level is a highly critical factor – if the pH moves outside the desired zone, then the algae tend to flocculate. The dosing system is therefore linked to the pH level, to optimise the supply of CO2 as precisely as possible. In this way, we can establish the maximum growing speed of the alga and how much CO2 we need to add to achieve this.
If we add too much CO2, then the pH of the fluid will fall too strongly, and the algae won’t grow enough. If we don’t add enough CO2, that in itself isn’t a problem, but the algae will grow more slowly, because their growth is limited by lack of carbon dioxide. For each alga, an optimum amount of CO2 can be added. Moreover, the CO2 needs to be given time to dissolve in the fluid. If the CO2 doesn’t dissolve, then it will ultimately escape from the reactor again, which means you’re simply wasting CO2. Whether the CO2 is effectively dissolved and absorbed therefore needs to be taken into account as well. The design of the reactor plays an important role in managing this aspect.
As you might have noticed, precision is very important in this process. The mass flow controller ensures that we can keep the whole process stable around the right pH level and that we know exactly how much CO2 has been added.
…and the future?
If this process is scaled up to actual production scale, then logistics will become a major factor in determining where the CO2 comes from. In principle, it’s possible to use exhaust gases straight from factories, but then you need to remove substances like sulphur oxide and nitrogen oxide, which are also present in these flue gases. If the levels of these substances are too high, they will inhibit the growth of the algae. There are technical solutions to this problem, however. The next question is: how far away can the algae factory be from the CO2 source? If this distance is too great, then the CO2 will have to be transported in another, controlled form, such as bicarbonate. Another option is to develop CO2 air-capture units that enable local extra CO2 to be extracted from the air. The University of Twente is working on this technology in another Interreg algae growth project, known as IDEA and currently running in North West Europe. The Radius research group at Thomas More UAS is also involved in this project. In technological terms, we know it’s possible, but the crucial point is how much the technology will cost.
Source: Jornt Spit was interviewed by Eddy Brinkman to produce this blog (Betase/Bronkhorst)
Today I would like to share an application story with you using mass flow meters in an application at Umicore in Suzhou (China). Umicore is one of the world’s leading producers of catalysts used in automotive emission systems. The company develops and manufactures high performing catalysts for, among other things, gasoline and diesel engines to transform pollutants into harmless gases, resulting in cleaner air.
Umicore’s production location in Suzhou ‘Umicore Technical Materials’ is using Bronkhorst Mass Flow Controllers and Vapour Systems for research and testing of automotive emission catalyst materials. Newly developed catalytically active materials of Umicore consist of oxides and precious metals, such as platinum and palladium, incorporated into a porous structure which allows intimate contact with the exhaust gas.
What catalyst materials does Umicore test?
Umicore in Suzhou uses various test benches in which newly developed catalytic materials are tested on performance (read: low output of toxic emissions). “Umicore develops new catalysts directly with top-tier automobile manufacturers in China. We are testing new formulations of materials and shapes of the catalysts on performance” explains Mr. Yang Jinliang.
How are the mass flow meters and controllers applied for identical testing and simulation?
The Bronkhorst mass flow meters and controllers are used to accurately deliver the right amount of several gases in a mixture that simulates the exhaust of an engine in different circumstances. “To really compare the performance of newly developed formulations, we have to be sure that the operational conditions of our tests are identical.” Mr. Yang explains that this requires the use of high performance mass flow controllers to accurately mix the simulated exhaust gas.
“We need flow control equipment which is reliable and has excellent repeatability during our simulation runs. Therefore Umicore developed the test equipment together with the Bronkhorst flow specialists.” Umicore runs various simulations. “We simulate exhaust gases of engines under various life cycle simulations and operating conditions. For example, the exhaust gas of the car is different if the engine is still cold or if the engine has a high number of revolutions.”
Test bench for ageing simulation
One special test bench of Umicore simulates the ageing of the catalyst materials. This has been achieved by heating the ambient temperature of the Catalyst up to 800° Celsius for a couple of hours up to 24 hours in a test run while adding the simulated exhaust gas. “Here the Bronkhorst instruments prove high stability under the harsh testing conditions,” says Mr. Yang.
Exhaust gas simulation recipe
In order to simulate engine exhaust gas, Umicore mixes multiple gases. In general the following reactions take place in the catalytic converter:
- Reduction of nitrogen oxides to nitrogen and oxygen: 2NOx → xO2 + N2
- Oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide: 2CO + O2 → 2CO2
- Oxidation of unburnt hydrocarbons (HC) to carbon dioxide and water: CxH2x+2 + [(3x+1)/2]O2 → xCO2 + (x+1)H2O
To mix these gases, EL-FLOW Select digital mass flow controllers are being used. In order to maintain the gas mix under the same pressure, an EL-PRESS pressure controller instrument is used to control the pressure simultaneously with the flow.
Exhaust gases of engines also contain evaporated H2O. For this purpose the Bronkhorst ‘Controlled Evaporation Mixer’ (CEM) is used. All digital mass flow controllers, pressure controller and the CEM are connected with a computer that runs a software program to control the instruments.
In the ageing simulation test-bench of Umicore, high-temperature mass flow controllers of Bronkhorst are applied. The Bronkhorst EL-FLOW Select controllers have remote electronics to resist gas temperatures as high as 110° Celsius and still control the gases with high accuracy and excellen repeatability.
How do you like the support of Bronkhorst products in China?
When asked about Bronkhorst support and service in China, Mr. Yang is very enthusiastic: “All Bronkhorst experts in China are very professional and have quick response. Especially during the start-up phase of our project, when we needed it most, my contacts were determined to support us. The system runs smoothly, but it’s comfortable to know that Bronkhorst is having one of its Global Service Offices in Shanghai if we need calibration or service.”
One of my favourite phrases is, ‘buy cheap, buy twice’. This is never more apparent than when purchasing new flow meters or looking at ways to protect existing ones if necessary. There are various accessories that you can add-on flow meters.
With mass flow meters and controllers, the accessory of choice often is a communication cable, these are essential in allowing you to communicate with an instrument and see/access the very information that you purchased the instrument to make available. However, one accessory is often over-looked and can be far more essential to the long-term performance and life-time cost of running an instrument, especially in industrial applications; filters.
In this blog I would like to share my ideas about filters, in particular the ones used for gas flow meters.
Why use filters for your mass flow meters?
This simple add-on to a new flow meter can protect against a multitude of issues like:
- Debris from contaminated gas lines
- Particles that exist in industrial gases
- Small amounts of oil from compressors
Filters are especially useful in applications where you have to deal with ‘dirty’ gases, gases with particles. This can be the case in an industrial environment, but also in research applications.
You may think that in research applications you work with clean gases, but tiny particles can also occur here. Not only the particles in gases can be a problem, the dirt stored in the piping can be harmful as well.
By using filters you can filter the gas before entering the flow meter to make sure that the gas at the inlet of the instrument is clean. This way you avoid contamination which can lead to a number of avoidable costs. With avoidable costs I mean costs due to down-time, service costs, calibration costs and engineering time to remove and re-install the damaged instrument.
Inherent to its construction, a thermal mass flow meter or controller for gases is more or less sensitive to contamination. The thermal flow meters for gas can be divided into two sensor principles:
- Gas flow meters using the bypass principle
- Gas flow meters using the CTA principle (Constant Temperature Anemometry)
Thermal mass flow meters for gases – Bypass principle
If we look at flow meters using the ‘bypass’ principle, these instruments are more sensitive to contamination. In these instruments only part of the gas stream flows through the sensor (bypass), the rest will flow through the laminar flow element. This flow element - flow splitter - contains small discs with high-precisions flow channels. You can imagine that these channels may be clogged by contamination.
More information about the bypass principle.
Thermal mass flow meter for gases – CTA principle
Instead of the bypass principle, instruments can also be designed by the CTA principle, also called Constant Temperature Anemometry, inline principle or direct-through principle. This principle has no bypass sensor but has a ‘straight’ flow channel. This construction is less sensitive to humidity and contamination.
More information about the CTA principle.
Contamination of mass flow meters
To increase the MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure) it is important to make sure that the gas or liquid entering the instrument is dry and clean, in particular when using flow instruments with a bypass sensor. Depending on your fluid you can select different types of filters.
Our mass flow meters and controllers are designed for low flows and therefore have delicate and finely machined parts. This is needed to enable us to quantify the flow rates of gases that we can achieve with a good level of accuracy and repeatability.
When you consider the potential damage that is possible from the different sources of contamination, and the delicate nature of the internal working of a mass flow controller, it would appear to be a very straightforward decision to include a filter in your next purchase of a Mass flow controller.
Filters for gas flow meters and controllers
For gas flow meters and controllers we have filters available which are placed in line with the instrument (our so called IN-LINE models).
Filters are easy to use, you just screw them into the inlet of the flow instrument, and it guarantees a clean gas inlet. It contains a 316L sintered metal filter cartridge that is suitable for general purpose filtration and can be cleaned with either a suitable solvent or by replacing the cartridge if heavily soiled.
If the gas contains large particles, we advise the use of a pre-filter. This pre-filter is recommended because it will remove a high percentage of the heavy particles, as it has a cartridge with a larger porosity than the actual filter, before they reach the main filter and reduce pressure drop from clogging and excessive maintenance/cleaning requirements.
Discover our filter models on our website and select your filter accordingly!
In a previous article we have already mentioned the importance of filters when installing a mass flow meter.
“Ensure that the piping of the system is clean (before installing the instrument). For absolute cleanliness always install filters to ensure a moisture and oil-free gas stream. It is recommended to install an inline filter upstream of the mass flow meter or controller, and if back flow can occur, a downstream filter or check valve is recommended too”.
Read more tips before installation in this blog: Top 10 tips for installation
The temperatures are sky high! All winter you've thought about going camping, travelling with your caravan and planning precious family trips. Finally now it’s the time to leave everything behind, and for a moment forget the busy daily live and struggling at home. However, everywhere you go Bronkhorst is travelling with you. Bronkhorst plays a role in many more applications than you think, even when you go camping. Let me guide you through some mainstream products you often see at a camping site, and the involvement of mass flow controllers.
If you are travelling to your vacation destination by car, you will constantly look at some Bronkhorst solutions. Let’s start with the dashboard of your car. Many cars have a leather dashboard; at least, it looks like leather. A major company manufactures ‘skin’ that covers a car's dashboard, to give it this ‘leather look’. The skin is produced by spraying liquid, colored polyurethane into a nickel mold. A Coriolis mass flow controller combined with a valve forms the basis of this solution to accurately supply external release agent to the nickel mold surface.
But also the foam within the dashboard is manufactured by using Bronkhorst products. To create foam, a gas is added to a mixture containing acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) or polyvinyl chloride (PVC), to give it the right volume. Too much gas will make the foam unstable, too little and you’ll get a heavy solid block. Therefore, it is utterly important that the correct amount of gas is added with an accurate gas flow controller.
If you look beyond your dashboard, you’ll look through the front window of your car. To control the light transmittance of glass, but also to make glass water repellent, protect it from mechanical and chemical stress, increase the scratch resistance and shatter protection, thermal mass flow controllers are used for the coating process. By controlling individually process gas flows, film thickness uniformity improvements are achieved.
Coating on headlights
When polycarbonate was introduced as a replacement for headlights glass in the early 1980s, new problems arose. Headlights are subject to a harsh environment. Due to the position in the front of a car, critical parameters for lifetime and performance are weather ability, scratches, and abrasion. To protect headlights from these factors, scratch and abrasion coatings have been developed that are sprayed on the headlights with the help of robots in which Coriolis mass flow controllers control the flow to the spraying nozzles.
However, surface treatment is not only applicable for glass and dashboards. If you have experience with camping, you will be familiar with how fierce the summer weather sometimes can be. The awning of your caravan needs to be water repellent - this also applies to your raincoat - to sustain the heavy rainfall now and then. To make fabrics and textiles hydrophobic, Empa - a research institute of the ETH Domain, applies plasma polymerisation to deposit thin, nanoscale layers on top of fabrics and fibers. For this, they are using a Controlled Evaporation and Mixing system, in short a CEM system. In one of our previous blogs ‘Hydrophobic coating, the answer to exercising in the rain’ you can read about this application.
Bronkhorst is also involved with many smaller attributes you will encounter on a campingsite. Most people still enjoy the comfort of gas for heating or cooking on the stove. But also with gas we are able to fire up the barbecue in no time at all, in comparison with the old-fashioned briquettes that are sometimes hard to ignite. When gas escapes from a pressurized cylinder, you’ll recognize this from its penetrating scent. However, like Sandra Wassink stated in her blog “How mass flow controllers make our gas smell”, natural gas is odorless. By controlled supply of odorants like Tetrahydrothiophene (THT) or Mecaptan with a mass flow controller, the scent is added to the natural gas on purpose.
Let’s stay with the topic scent for a moment. For when we want to decrease the amount of mosquitos in our surroundings, we often light a citronella candle when we are getting tired of using the flyswatter. With the CORI-FILL dosing technology, Bronkhorst offers an easy-to-use setup to dose fragrances, like citronella, in candles. The addition of fragrance to a candle should be carefully monitored to ensure the candle burns cleanly and safely.
However a candle can bring much light to your surroundings, you won’t take a candle with you when you dash to the camping toilets at night. Instead you will use a flashlight of course. The working principle of the LED (Light Emitting Diode) inside this flashlight is a technology where Bronkhorst plays its part. LED works via the phenomenon called electroluminescence, which is the emission of light from a semiconductor (diode) under the influence of an electric field. By applying a semiconducting material like Gallium arsenide phosphide for instance, the manufacturing of red, orange and yellow light emitting diodes is possible.
I already told you so much, but frankly, it is just a tiny bit of all the camping applications we are involved in. Hopefully you got some more insights on the importance of Bronkhorst in many industries, even when you go camping.
Sign me up to receive regular updates
Why do we all (at least most of us) like candy, soda, cookies and cake? All these products contain sugar which makes it taste real good. But where does this sugar come from? All green plants make sugar through photosynthesis. Of all plants, sugar beets and sugar cane contain the greatest quantities of sugar; that’s why we usually use these two plants to extract sugar. In this blog we focus on the processing of sugar beets and the role that Bronkhorst flow meters have in this process.
Convergence Industry B.V. is a supplier of customized measurement and control systems for liquids and gases. In the process of getting sugar from sugar beets one of the customers of Convergence discovered that by using membrane filtration, it was possible to extract more components out of the sugar beet than sugar alone. For this a customized lab scale system for nano filtration was used.
Membrane filtrations is a high-quality purification process using sophisticated techniques. How does this work? A simple explanation of membrane filtration is comparing it with making coffee. If you pour water in a coffee filter filled with coffee beans, you want coffee as a result without the shell of the coffee bean. That’s what the filter is for. On another level this is similar to water filtration where you want to filter the ions so you can make drinking water out of seawater. As simple as that!
Collaboration with Convergence for membrane filtration
For the membrane filtration a ‘Convergence inspector Colossus’can be used. This is a fully automated customized lab scale system for nano filtration which makes it interesting. Felix Broens (Chief Technology Officer of Convergence Industry B.V.) explains how this system works:
”The nanofiltration system is fed with water in which a phosphatefree anti scalant is dosed. Using a high pressure pump the system is pressurized, causing a part of the water to pass to the membrane (permeate). The part of the water that cannot pass through the membrane (retentate) is led back to where the water has been fed. An extra pump in the recirculation conduit causes a higher velocity across the surface of the membrane, which reduces pollution on the membrane itself. The permeate can eventually be used as clean water for different applications.”
“The anti scalant is used to prevent scaling on the membrane, by forming a complex of metal-containing ions, which keeps them in the retentate stream so that they can be led out of the system. Because of using a phosphate free and biodegradable anti scalant, it doesn’t have any harmful effects on the environment.”
Bronkhorst flow meters in membrane filtration
The heart of the nanofiltration system is a Bronkhorst Coriolis mass flow meter for controlling the process. It uses a Coriolis flow meter because it can measure density as well, which is important in case of sugary solutions. The flow meter is placed at the ‘clean’ side of the process, so behind the membrane where the permeate flow takes place (the purified product flow). The degree of separation of the membrane can be influenced by both flow speed and pressure. And thus a Coriolis flow meter with a wide range is the best option to cover a large test range.
This Convergence system has made it possible for their customer to improve their process enormously. Before using the Convergence system it was a manual process that was rather time consuming and not always accurate. Nowadays the whole process is automated using client-specific Convergence software which makes it possible to accurately control the Coriolis mass flow meter with the pump and therefore, the permeate flow can now be controlled accurately and fast. This results in a good reproducibility, reliability, datalogging and shorter lead times for the experiment compared to as it was before. This customized lab scale system makes it possible to generate a sufficient amount of residue for testing purposes without making it necessary to upscale the process to a pilot plant.
Check out the Coriolis flow meters available for this application.
Contact Convergence for more information about membrane filtration.
Sign me up to receive regular updates